Gynaecologic Cancer Programme

The Gynaecologic Cancer Programme offers expert treatment to patients with Ovarian, Cervical, Endometrial and other cancers of the reproductive system. BLK Cancer Centre is one of the leading centres of the country to provide major Gynaecological Oncology services to women diagnosed with or suspected to have a Gynaecological Cancer.

A team of dedicated Gynae-Onco Surgeons perform radical surgeries for all Gynaecological Cancers such as:

  • Radical Hysterectomy with Nodal Dissection
  • Staging surgery for Ca Endometrium with Sentinel Lymph Node Mapping
  • Surgical cyto-reduction for advanced Ovarian Cancer including Peritonectomy, Bowel Resection and Anastomosis, Ileostomy /Colostomy, Hepatectomy, Splenectomy, Distal Gastrectomy, Distal Pancreatectomy
  • Exenteration surgeries for recurrent Gynaecological Cancers
  • Radical Vulvectomy with inguino-Femoral Lymph Node Dissection
  • Radical Vaginectomy
  • Vulval / Vaginal Plastic Reconstruction using flaps

Some of the other services offered at the Unit are:

  • Management of suspicious pelvic masses with intra-operative frozen section analysis
  • Cervical Cancer Screening and Immunisation
  • Ovarian and Endometrial Cancer Screening in high-risk women

 

What Is Gynaecologic Cancer?

Gynaecologic Cancer is any cancer that originates from the reproductive organs of a woman. It refers to uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells in the reproductive organs. There are several types of Gynaecological Cancers such as:

  • Cervical Cancer
  • Endometrial Cancer
  • Ovarian Cancer
  • Primary Peritoneal Cancer
  • Fallopian Tube Cancer
  • Vaginal Cancer
  • Vulvar Cancer
  • Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasias

What Are The Symptoms Of Gynaecologic Cancers?

Symptoms of Gynaecologic Cancer depend on the site of the tumour and can include either any one of the following or a combination of below mentioned complaints:

  • Abnormal uterine bleeding
  • Bleeding after sexual intercourse
  • Inter-menstrual bleeding (bleeding between two periods)
  • Vaginal bleeding or spotting after menopause
  • Foul smelling vaginal discharge
  • Urinary symptoms (haematuria, urgency or frequency)
  • Rectal symptoms (diarrhea or constipation, bleeding per rectum)
  • Persistent pelvic pain or pressure
  • Abdominal distension
  • Feeling of lump in abdomen
  • Bloating
  • Feeling full quickly
  • Loss of appetite
  • Persistent itching over vulva
  • Change in the color of vulval skin
  • Appearance of wart, sore or an ulcerated lesion
  • Enlarged groin lymph nodes

Stages of Gynaecologic Cancer?

All gynecological cancers have 4 stages and each stage to which a cancer belongs can only be determined after his to pathological examination of the surgical specimens. Thus, thorough surgical staging with complete tumour removal is the key to increase the chances of survival.

How is Gynaecologic Cancer Diagnosed?

Gynaecological Cancers can be diagnosed by a combination of :

  • Physical examination
  • Gynaecological examination
  • Biopsy
  • Certain blood tests (tumor markers)
  • Imaging studies which include transvaginal ultrasound, abdominal  Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI),  or abdominal Computed Tomography (CT)
  • Whole body PET CT, if indicated

What Are The Possible Treatments For Gynaecologic cancers?

The treatment of Gynaecological Cancers requires a multi-modality approach and usually involves a combination of Surgery, Chemotherapy or Radiation Therapy.

  • Surgery: It is the mainstay of treatment for most Gynaecological Cancers particularly in the early stages of the disease when the cancer cells have not spread to other organs or to the advanced stages of the disease when the tumour is grossly visible.
    Depending on the biopsy report of the surgical specimens, the Gynaeonco-surgeon decides on the treatment plan which would be either in the form of Radiation Therapy or Chemotherapy or both.
  • Radiation therapy: Involves the use of ionizing radiation to kill cancer cells. It is a form of local treatment that affects cancer cells only in the treated area.
  • Chemotherapy: Involves the use of anti-cancer medicines to kill cancer cells.

What Are The Precautions One Must Take To Reduce The Risk Of Gynaecologic cancers?

  • All women between 21-65 years should undergo regular screening with Cervical Cytology (Pap smear)
  • Avoid promiscuous sexual behaviour
  • Adopt safe sex practices
  • Consult a doctor for HPV vaccination
  • Exercise regularly to maintain a healthy body weight since obesity is a risk factor for some Gynae Cancers
  • Avoid smoking
  • Consume alcohol in moderation
  • Do not hesitate in seeking medical help while experiencing any untoward or new onset of symptoms

Are there any risk factors involved?

Some of the factors that may lead to Gynaecological Cancers are:

  • Persistent Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) infection: It is the most important risk factor that leads to cervical cancer
  • Age: Risk of developing cancer increases with advancing age. Most cancers develop in women above 40 years or after menopause
  • Obesity: Increased body weight also poses a great risk
  • Family history: Women with a family history of Ovarian Cancer, Breast Cancer, or Colorectal Cancer are at an increased risk of developing Gynaecological Cancers
  • Personal history of Breast Cancer: If you have undergone treatment for Breast Cancer, you are at high risk of developing Gynaecologic Cancer
  • Smoking: Women who smoke are twice as likely to get Cervical Cancer, than women who do not. Smoking makes the immune system less effective in fighting HPV infections
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases: History of sexually transmitted diseases increase the risk of Cervical Cancer
  • Sexual activity at an early age: Women who get involved in sexual activity at an early age (less than 16 years) are at high risk of developing Cervical Cancer
  • Multiple sexual partners: Having sex with multiple partners increases the risk of Cervical Cancer
  • Genetic Disorder: A genetic syndrome called Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colon Cancer (HNPCC) or Genetic mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene increases the risk  of Gynaecologic Cancers

Find Complete Relief from BLK Experts

If you think you are facing similar conditions, or have suffered from them in the past, please contact the BLK Hospital team to schedule an appointment at : +91-11-30403040

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