Haploidentical Donor Transplant

BLK Centre for Bone Marrow Transplant is part of BLK Super Speciality Hospital that aims to provide patients with non-intrusive, compassionate care while advancing the understanding, treatment, cure, and prevention of blood-related diseases.

The unit is supported by a team of proficient experts who hold years of experience in performing Haploidentical Donor Transplantation and consistently treating a wide range of blood disorders and blood cancers. Our multidisciplinary team offers round-the-clock service and high-quality treatment to meet the individual needs of each patient in the best way possible.

Studies have proved that less than 30% of the patient’s find a stem cell match among family members, this number decreases to 5% in the case of people with mixed race. For approximately 70% of patients who do not have an HLA-identical sibling donor has to undertake haploidentical stem cell transplantation treatment to cure their blood-related disorders. 
 

What Is Haploidentical Donor Transplantation?

The term haploidentical donor refers to a half-matched donor, whose human leukocyte antigen (HLA) tissue type matches with that of the patient’s.  A patient has to undergo haploidentical stem cell transplantation when he/she has no matched donor is available. Usually, a half donor is:

  • Related donor: Such as mother, father or children as parents are always a half-match for their children. However, sibling has only 50% chance of being a half-match for each other. They can often serve as a donor for each other.

A haploidentical transplant is a type of allogeneic transplant, which involves the use of healthy, blood-forming cells from a half-matched donor to replace the unhealthy ones.

What Are The Indicators For This Transplantation?

There are various serious health conditions related to blood disorders that require bone marrow transplant as a cure. Such illnesses include:

  • Anaemia
  • Lymphomas 
  • Marrow Failure Syndromes 
  • Coagulation Disorders
  • Acute and Chronic Leukaemia
  • Myeloproliferative & Lymphoproliferative Disorders
  • Hodgkin’s and Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma
  • Multiple Myeloma including 
    • Amyloidosis, 
    • Myelodysplastic 
    • Myeloproliferative Syndromes (including Myelofibrosis)
  • Aplastic Anaemia
  • Sickle Cell disease
  • Germ Cell Tumours
  • Paediatric diseases and solid tumours
  • Inherited metabolic and genetic diseases

What Is The Procedure Of The Transplantation?

A haploidentical transplant is a newer type of transplant that is a potentially curative therapy for a wide variety of malignant and non-malignant disorders related to blood and bone marrow. The transplantation procedure includes the following steps:

Step 1: Pretransplant Process: A doctor might ask a patient to undergo several Pretransplant tests and procedures, in order to ensure their general health and the clinical status of the current medical condition. The process includes:

  • Beginning Medical Evaluation
  • Conference for Treatment Plan
  • Central Venous Catheter Evaluation and Insertion
  • Bone Marrow/Stem Cells Harvest: Bone marrow from the hip bone or stem cells from the blood of the half-matched donor is harvest for the transplantation process. 

Step 2: Conditioning Process: The choice of conditioning process depends upon the medical condition of the patient. In this process either chemotherapy or radiation therapy or a combination of both is given to the patient:

  • In the case of malignancy to destroy any type of cancer cells
  • Aids the patient’s bone marrow in elevating the growth of new stem cells
  • Helps in suppressing the immune system of the patient

Step 3: Haploidentical Transplant: A promising approach is used to transplant the harvested and processed Bone marrow/Stem cells into the patient's body using a central venous catheter. These cells then travel to different parts of the bones in the body, thereby offering a patient with a tendency to develop new blood cells.

Step 4: Engraftment: In this process, the close monitoring of the patient is done to aid the positive outcome of the transplant and look for the signs of the growth of new stem cells, along with supportive care.

Step 5: Post Engraftment monitoring and continuation of immunosuppression

What Are The Precautions One Must Take Before And After The Transplantation?

A patient must take some of the very important precautions before and after the transplantation process, which includes:

Before the transplant:

  • Discuss your medical history in detail with the doctor.
  • If you have undergone chemotherapy take a shower twice or thrice in a day.
  • Take the entire test asked by the doctor, as it will help them evaluate more accurate treatment plan.
  • Avoid drinking alcohol or smoke/eat tobacco for a month before the transplant.
  • One must be prepared both mentally and physically to take the transplant.
  • Avoid eating heavy meals a week before the transplant.

After the transplant:

  • One has to follow a strict routine, as advised by the doctor. It will help in improving the immune system of the patient.
  • Patient must take all the medicines prescribed by the doctor on time.
  • Avoid unnecessary environmental exposure as it can lead to infection.
  • Maintain proper hygiene in your house and in your room.
  • Try to wash your hands more frequently.
  • Get the proper vaccination as prescribed by the doctor.
  • Try to maintain a balanced diet with lots of fruits and vegetables.

Are There Any Complications Involved?

Generally, a patient receives high doses of chemotherapy or radiation therapy before a transplant, which come with complications such as

  • Infections
  • Stomach and intestinal irritations.
  • Skin redness
  • Bleeding
  • Anaemia
  • Problems in Organs like liver and lung

Other complications due to transplant include:

  • Pain
  • Chills
  • Fever 
  • Flushing of the face
  • Hives
  • Chest pain
  • Risks of graft failure
  • Graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) – a condition where donated bone marrow may attack the cells. Thus it is suggested to use the more genetically close donor for transplant.

Since a haploidentical transplant is a relatively new approach to transplantation, therefore, the clinical research is still advancing. However, its success rate is the same as that of convectional transplants.

Find Complete Relief from BLK Experts

If you think you are facing similar conditions, or have suffered from them in the past, please contact the BLK Hospital team to schedule an appointment at : +91-11-30403040

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