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Centre for Plastic & Cosmetic Surgery >> Treatment Offered >> Reconstructive Plastic Surgery

Reconstructive Plastic Surgery

Reconstructive plastic surgery is a distinct area of plastic surgery which differs from cosmetic surgery. While the goal of cosmetic surgery is to enhance or alter the normal appearance, the goal of reconstructive surgery is to reconstruct something abnormal to achieve a more normal appearance. Such abnormalities can be congenital or acquired. Examples of congenital deformities include cleft lip and palate, extra fingers and toes, webbed fingers, and skin growths, for example, strawberry patches or giant hairy nevi (moles) etc.

Acquired deformities span a broad range of abnormalities which have developed due to trauma, cancer, or other disease. Some examples of these deformities include Head and neck cancer, Oral Cancer, Breast cancer, skin tumors, burn scars, facial injuries, hand injuries, and amputations. Plastic surgeons perform a wide variety of surgeries to restore function and to correct the appearance of deformity. This is accomplished in a number of ways. Common procedures include skin grafting, flap surgery, microsurgery, and various other procedures.


Skin grafting

Skin grafting is a technique performed to replace damaged or unhealthy skin. It involves moving a section of skin from one part of the body to another part. This technique is commonly used to cover large open wounds or to replace skin damaged because of a burn injury. The place where the skin was taken from is allowed to heal spontaneously on its own.


Flap surgery

Flap surgery is a step up and substantially more complex and sophisticated than skin grafting. Flap surgery involves moving layers of tissue (usually skin, fat, muscle, and even bone) and its associated blood supply from one area of the body to another. This can be in the same region, utilizing a regional flap, or it can be done from a distant part of the body; anywhere from head to toe. If the tissue or “flap” is brought from a distance, the blood supply usually has to be divided and reconnected by use of the operating microscope and microsurgical techniques.


Reconstructive Microsurgery

Reconstructive Microsurgery is a special area of plastic surgery which describes any surgery performed under the magnification of an operating microscope. Microsurgery is used, as described above, for transfer of tissue from one part of the body to another distant part of the body for reconstruction. It also has many other applications. Plastic surgeons use the assistance of the microscope to repair severed nerves ,blood vessels and to reattach amputated body parts including fingers and toes, even entire limbs ,avulsed scalp. We use Microsurgical skills to reconstruct defects created as a result of Breast ,Head & Neck and oral cavity Cancer etc to give optimum functional out come in such patients.


Breast Reconstruction Surgery

In conjunction with the BLK Cancer Center, Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery has developed a Comprehensive Breast Program for patients afflicted with maladies of the breast.

Breast reconstruction is an essential step in the care for modern breast cancer patient, affording both physical restoration and psychologic closure after ablative interventions.

This program focuses primarily on reconstructive efforts for women with carcinoma of the breast. Reconstructions with own tissue in the form of flaps and breast implants with or without acellular dermal matrices are offered by our team. By teaming with surgical oncologists, medical oncologists and radiotherapists, our surgeons evaluate each patient's case and individualize each treatment plan.

The comprehensive breast program has also extended its services to women with non-oncologic breast disease such as breast hypertrophy and congenital malformations and to male patients.

Reconstructive Plastic Surgery refers to the restoration of appearance and function following injury or disease, as well as correction of congenital defects using a distinct technique of Plastic Surgery. At BLK Centre for Reconstructive Plastic Surgery, our experts treat a variety of congenital problems, such as extra fingers and toes, webbed fingers, skin growths like strawberry patches or giant hairy moles, etc. We also treat urogenital anomalies like hypospadias, epispadias, etc.

Our plastic surgeons perform several types of operations to restore form and function in cases of cancer and trauma related deformities. This includes deformities arising out of head and neck cancer, oral cancer, breast cancer, skin tumors and deformities that are a result of burns as well as facial and hand injuries. Specialised treatment at our Centre for Reconstructive Plastic Surgery includes:

  • Free Flap Reconstruction for Head and Neck

    The "Free Flap" surgical procedure is a method of facial reconstruction for patients following treatment for head and neck cancer. It leads to early recovery, higher cure rate and better cosmetic outcomes

  • Microsurgical Breast Reconstruction

    Microsurgical Breast Reconstruction is an important part of breast cancer treatment. It gives superior shape and better cosmetic result on reconstructed female breasts

  • Tissue Expansion

    The latest treatment available for reconstructive surgery, it includes expanding the normal skin for curing post trauma and congenital defects of the body


What is replantation surgery?

Working with heavy machinery places the fingers and hands at risk of severe injury. Sometimes a patient’s thumb, finger or even the entire hand can be accidentally amputated. Replantation is a surgical reattachment of a finger, hand or arm that has been completely cut off from a person’s body. The goal of replantation surgery is to give the patient back as much use of the injured limb as possible.


What are the steps in replantation surgery?

There are a number of steps in the replantation process. First, the amputated part is thoroughly cleaned. The bone ends are shortened and rejoined with pins or plates. This holds the detached part in place and allows rest of the tissues to be restored to a normal position. Then the muscles, tendons and nerves are repaired. Finally, blood circulation is restored by joining the tiny blood vessels under the magnification of microscope.


Is there anything to be taken care of in the process?

Smoking precipitates poor circulation and may cause loss of blood flow to the replanted part. Therefore, it must be avoided at any cost. Age also plays a crucial role in recovery. Younger patients have the tendency to recover faster.


What is the first aid management for an amputated finger or limb?

First aid should be administered to the affected person as well as the amputated part. The primary goal is to ensure the survival of the person. An amputation is an emergency; so call an ambulance! An amputated part also needs to be treated carefully to maximize the chances of success in replantation surgery.



  • Wrap the digit or limb in a sterile dry gauze
  • Place it in a clean plastic bag and secure the bag tightly
  • Then place the bag into a second plastic bag containing ice cubes. Secure both the bags together with their ends upright


  • Never allow the amputated digit or limb to be in direct contact with ice or water
  • Never keep it in the freezer compartment of a fridge
  • If in doubt, contact your nearest medical officer immediately

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